So, you’ve been tasked with building an analytics dashboard. It’s tempting to jump into development straight away, but hold on a minute! There are numerous pitfalls that are easy to fall into and can ruin your plans for an attractive, useful dashboard. Here are five important principles for dashboard development to keep in mind every time you open up Power BI, Tableau, Looker, or any other BI tool.
1. Keep it focused and defined.
Before you start answering questions, you need to know exactly what you’re trying to find out. The starting point of most any dashboarding project should be a whiteboarding session with the end users; the dashboard becomes a collection of visuals that hold the ability to answer their questions.
For every single visual you create, make sure you’re answering a specific question. Each graph needs to be intentional and purposeful, and it’s very important to have your KPIs clearly defined well before you start building. If you don’t include your stakeholders from the very beginning, you’ll almost certainly have a lot more reworking to do after initial production is complete.
2. A good data foundation is key.
Generating meaningful visualizations is nearly impossible without a good data foundation. Unclean data means holes and problems will need to be patched and fixed further down the pipeline. Many BI tools have functions that can format/prepare your data and generate some level of relational modeling for building your visualizations. However, too much modeling and logic in the tool itself will lead to large performance issues, and most BI tools aren’t specifically built with data wrangling in mind. A well-modeled semantic layer in a separate tool that handles all the necessary business logic is often essential for performance and governance.
Don’t undervalue the semantic layer!
The semantic layer is the step in preparation where the business logic is performed, joins are defined, and data is formatted from its raw form so it’s understandable and logical for users going forward. For Power BI users, for example, you would likely generate tabular models within SSAS. With a strong semantic layer in place before you even get to the BI tool, there will be little to no data management to be done in the tool itself. This means there is less processing the BI tool needs to handle and a much cleaner governance system.
In many BI tools, you can load in a raw dataset and have a functional dashboard in 10 minutes. However, building a semantic layer forces you to slow down and put some time in upfront for definition, development, and reflection about what the data is and what insights you’re trying to get for your business. This ensures you’re actually answering the right questions.
This is one of the many strengths of Looker, which is built specifically to handle the semantic layer as well as create visualizations. It forces you to define the logic in the tool itself before you start creating visuals.
It’s often tempting to skip the data prep steps in favor of putting out a finished product quickly, but remember: Your dashboard is only as good as the data underneath it.
3. PLEASE de-clutter.
There are numerous, obvious problems with the dashboard below, but there is one lesson to learn that many developers forget: Embrace white space! White space wants to be your friend. Like in web development, trying to pack too many visuals into the same dashboard is a recipe for disaster. Edward Tufte calls it the “data to ink ratio” in his book The Visual Display of Quantitative Information, one of the first and most impactful resources on data visualization.
Basically, just remove anything that isn’t essential or move important but non-pertinent information to a different page of the dashboard/report.
4. Think before using that overly complicated visual.
About to use a tree-map to demonstrate relationships among three variables at once? What about a 3-D, three-axis representation of sales? Most of the time: don’t. Visualizing data isn’t about making something flashy – it’s about creating something simple that someone can gain insight from at a glance. For almost any complex visualization, there is a simpler solution available, like splitting up the graph into multiple, more focused graphs.
5. Keep your interface clean, understandable, and consistent.
In addition to keeping your data clean and your logic well-defined, it’s important to make sure everything is understandable from start to finish and is easy to interpret by the end users. This starts with simply defining dimensions and measures logically and uniformly, as well as hiding excess and unused columns in the end product. A selection panel with 10 well-named column options is much easier than one with 30, especially if end-users will be doing alterations and exploration themselves.
You may notice a theme with most of these principles for dashboard development: Slow down and plan. It’s tempting to jump right into creating visuals, but never underestimate the value of planning and defining your steps first. Doing that will help ensure your dashboard is clean, consistent, and most important, valuable.
If you need help planning, implementing, or finding insights in your dashboards, the 2nd Watch team can help. Our certified consultants have the knowledge, training, and experience to help you drive the most value from your dashboard tool. Contact us today to learn about our data visualization starter pack.